Crutchy Push Bibliography

ARTICLES

JOURNAL ARTICLES

Bellanta, M & Sleight, S 2014, ‘The leary larrikin’, Cultural and Social History, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 263-83.

Bellanta, M 2010, ‘The larrikin girl’, Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 499-512.

Bodington, G 1875, ‘On the control and restraint of habitual drunkards’, British medical journal, vol. 2, no. 765, p. 255.

Garton, S 1987, ‘Once a drunkard always a drunkard: social reform and the problem of ‘habitual drunkenness’ in Australia, 1880-1914′, Labour History, no. 53, pp. 38-53.

Luckins, T 2007, ‘Pigs, hogs and aussie blokes: the emergence of the term ‘six o’clock swill’’, History Australia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 08.1-.17.

Luckins, T 2008, ‘‘Satan finds some mischief’?: drinkers’ responses to the six o’clock closing of pubs in Australia, 1910s–1930s’, Journal of Australian Studies, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 295-307.

Petersen, N 2017, ‘Neighbourhood context and unsolved murders: the social ecology of homicide investigations’, Policing and Society, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 372-92.

Turner, DJ & Johnston, DH 2017, ‘Disability and the Victorian prison: experiencing penal servitude’, Prison service journal, no. 232, pp. 11–6.

Vicary, A & Fraley, R 2010, ‘Captured by true crime: why are women drawn to tales of rape, murder, and serial killers?’, Social Psychological and Personality Science, vol. 1, pp. 81-6.

NEWSPAPER ARTICLES

The Age (Melbourne, VIC): ‘An Exemplary Sentence’, 25 September 1896, p. 7; ‘Criminal Court’, 29 October 1904, p. 14; ‘Party Ends in Brawl’, 19 January 1927, p. 14.

The Argus (Melbourne, VIC): ‘The Melbourne Goal’, 13 March 1875, p. 4; ‘A Disgraceful Scene’, 28 August 1899, p. 6; ‘The Push’, 25 October 1899, p. 11; ‘North Melbourne Murder’, 16 October 1901, p. 11; ‘North Melbourne Wounding Case’, 2 August 1904, p. 5; ‘Melbourne General Sessions’, 8 September 1904, p. 7; ‘General Sessions’, 4 April 1925, p. 33; ‘Traffic Prosecutions’, 16 February 1929, p. 30; ‘Family Notices’, 21 May 1930, p. 1.

Daily Telegraph (Launceston, TAS), ‘Charged With Murder’, 21 September 1901, p. 5.

Evening News (Sydney, NSW), ‘The Loss Of A Limb’, 12 January 1910, p. 5.

Evening Star (Boulder, WA), Malone, H., ‘The Crutchy Push’, 14 May 1912, p.1.

Geelong Advertiser, ‘The Murder of George Hill’, 6 September 1901, p. 4.

Herald (Melbourne, VIC): ‘A Feminine’, 20 July 1899, p.1; ‘A Faint Chance’, 4 September 1904, p. 5; ‘Fitroy’, 13 August 1906, p. 3.

Kalgoorlie Miner, ‘A Larrikin Outrage’, 16 August 1904, p. 6.

North Melbourne Advertiser, ‘North Melbourne Court’, 24 October 1890, p. 2.

North Melbourne Courier and West Melbourne Advertiser: ‘Thursday May 13’, 14 May 1897, p. 2; ‘North Melbourne Police Court’, 21 February 1902, p. 3; ‘Thursday June 19’, 20 June 1902, p. 2.

North Melbourne Gazette, ‘Thursday July 20th 1899’, 21 July 1899, p. 4.

Sun (Melbourne, VIC): ‘Riot In Little Bourke’, 28 June 1911, p. 8.

Sydney Morning Herald, ‘Herald Saturday Magazine’, 17 January 1953, p. 9.

Truth (Melbourne, VIC): ‘Sly-Grog Scoop’, 12 August 1916, p. 6; ‘A Den of Infamy’, 21 July, 1917, p. 3; ‘Sly-Grog Shanties’, 29 December 1919, p. 3.

Weekly Times (Melbourne, VIC): ‘Sporting Notes’, 14 October 1882, p. 4.

Zeehan and Dundas Herald (TAS), ‘Audacious Robbery’, 28 August 1899, p. 3.

ONLINE ARTICLES

Brown, SL 2015, Murderers, prostitutes, mothers and paupers: Victorian female prison registers online for first time, Australian Broardcasting Coorperation, viewed: 30 March 2020, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-08-21/victorian-archives-prison-records-online/6715032>.

Fraser, C 2022, ‘Cripple Punk: The Disabled Young People Smashing Ableism’, viewed 18 July 2022, <https://www.vice.com/en/article/akevzj/what-is-cripple-punk>.

McDonald, D 2013, The disability wars: Australia’s unwritten history, Ramp Up, viewed: 8 September 2021, <https://www.abc.net.au/rampup/articles/2013/10/23/3873574.htm>.

BOOKS

Barnard, E 2015, Emporium : selling the dream in colonial Australia, National Library of Australia, Canberra, ACT.

Bellanta, M 2012, Larrikins: A history, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, Qld.

Bowen, N, Eddy, D, Gigacz, A, Archer, G & Slattery, G 2017, The shinboners : the complete history of the North Melbourne Football Club : since 1869, Slattery Media Group.

Gleeson, B 1998, ‘The social space of disability in colonial Melbourne’, Images of the street: Planning, identity and control in public space.

McNamara, M 2018, I’ll be gone in the dark : one woman’s obsessive search for the Golden State killer, Updated Edition edn., Faber and Faber.

Maloy, R 2020, The gangs of Melbourne: Dawn of Crime Volume 4, RME Publishing, Melbourne, Vic.

Page, DW 1996, Body trauma : a writer’s guide to wounds and injuries, The Howdunit Series, 1st edn., Writer’s Digest Books, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Prout, D & Feely, F 1967, 50 years hard: the story of Pentridge Goal from 1850 to 1900, Rigby, Adeliade, S.A.

GOVERNMENT ACTS

The Crimes Act 1890 (Cwlth)

The Invalid and Old-age Pensions Act 1908 (Cwlth)

The Crimes Act 1914 (Cwlth)

The Vagrant Act 1852 (Vic.)

The Neglected Children’s Act 1890 (Vic)

GOVERNMENT RECORDS

Victoria. Clerk of the Executive Council 1919, Appointments of judge of county courts, etc. etc., Victoria Government Gazette, no. 97, Wednesday, 18 June 1919.

Victorian Registry of Births, DaM. Victorian Department of Justice 1873, Marriage certificate of Thomas Keating and Bridget Ryan (4266/1873).

———. Victorian Department of Justice 1878, Birth certificate of Valentine Keating (17558/1878).

———. Victorian Department of Justice 1898, Marriage of James Adderley and Harriet Adderley (7443/1898).

———. 1899, Marriage Certificate of David Walsh and Margaret Keating (6022/1899).

———. Victorian Department of Justice 1921, Death certificate of James Adderley (4642/1921).

OTHER ARCHIVAL MATERIAL

POLICE GAZETTES

Ancestry.com 1868, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.385 [database online]. James Buckham desertion charge, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44406_b220371-00408?pId=311881>.

 ——— 1873, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.270 [database online]. Jabez Adderley absconding from the Nelson, Ancestry.com Operations Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44406_b220350-00387?pId=189949>.

 ——— 1886, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.192 [database online]. Larceny – 25 Jan Discharged the week ending 26th June, 1886, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44406_b220361-00288?pId=303051>.

 ——— 1887, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.232 [database online]. Warrant for Jabez Adderley charged with deserting his wife, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44406_b220362-00355?pId=230039>.

 ——— 1893, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: [database online]. Absconding from Boys Home, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220480-00162?pId=552142>.

 ——— 1893, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.157 [database online]. Valentine getting arrested by Industrial Schools Department, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220480-00205?pId=553264>.

 ——— 1897, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.249 [database online]. Release of Joseph Goreman, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220484-00576>.

 ——— 1897, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.74 [database online]. Stealing otherwise from the person or the dwelling – Coat, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220485-00337?pId=458353>.

 ——— 1897, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1893-1924: p.114 [database online]. Discharged during the week ending 20th March, 1897, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220484-00184?pId=538611>.

 ——— 1898, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.118 [database online]. Two warrants out for Valentine Keating, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220485-00204?pid=455074>.

 ——— 1898, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.255 [database online]. Discharged during the week ending 27th August 1898, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220485-00398?pId=459925>.

 ——— 1898, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.233 [database online]. Stealing otherwise from the person or the dwelling – Fruitshop, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220485-00347>.

 ——— 1898, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1893-1924: p.220 [database online]. Discharged for larceny week ending 9th July 1898, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220485-00328>.

 ——— 1899, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: [database online]. Discharged the week ending 12th August 1899, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220486-00368>.

 ——— 1900, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.83 [database online]. Discharged the week ending 24th Feburary, 1900, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220487-00152?pId=331627>.

 ——— 1900, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.227 [database online]. Discharged during the week ending 23rd June, 1900, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220487-00326>.

 ——— 1900, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.369 [database online]. Discharged during the week ending 20th October, 1900, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220487-00502>.

 ——— 1902, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.157 [database online]. Discharged the ending 26th April 1902, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220489-00238>.

 ——— 1903, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.384 [database online]. Charged with loitering on footpath, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220490-00468>.

 ——— 1903, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: [database online]. Discharged during the week ending 27th June, 1903, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220490-00365>.

 ——— 1905, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.341 [database online]. Discharged the week ending 2 September 1905, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220492-00460?pId=652489>.

 ——— 1906, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: [database online]. Discharged the week ending 22nd September, 1906, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220493-00493>.

 ——— 1909, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1864-1924: p.135 [database online]. Discharged discription of Valentine Keating, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220475-00215?pId=469239>.

 ——— 1909, Police Gazettes, 1855, 1893-1924: [database online]. Discharged mugshot of Valentine Keating, Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/imageviewer/collections/60885/images/44405_b220475-00537?pId=476060>.

 ——— 2010, Australia, Electoral Rolls, 1903-1980: [database online]. Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: 23/09/2021.

PUBLIC RECORDS OF VICTORIA

PROV, VA475 Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS 4527/P0000   5867 – 8913; Boys neglected. Book 8, Adderley, Jabez [Reg. no. 6460], 1872, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/A0C05808-F4C7-11E9-AE98-17B2886C03DB?image=145

———, VA475 Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS 4527/P0000 Ward Register (known as Children’s Registers 1864 – 1887), 16759 – 17223; Girls and boys neglected. Receiving House Book Vol. RH9, Gorman, Joseph [Reg. no. 16829], 1889, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/98AA0803-F4C7-11E9-AE98-A9BB0605D963?image=121

———, VA475 Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS 4527/P0000, 10337 – 19282; Boys convicted. Ballarat Book, Adderley, James [Reg. no. 17555R], 1890, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/A10A327F-F4C7-11E9-AE98-3385090A3952?image=309

———, VA475 Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS 4527/P0000   Ward Registers (known as Children’s Registers 1864 – 1887), 18647 – 19010, Keating, Valentine [Reg. no. 18810], 1890, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/A0C22CC9-F4C7-11E9-AE98-3D1B871798B8

———, VA1464 Penal and Gaols Branch, Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS515/P0000 Central Register for Male Prisoners 27277 – 27760 (1895-1897), Joseph Gorman Prison number: 27628, 1896, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/1CA07108-F3A9-11E9-AE98-A1858C49182D?image=364

———, VA2550 Office of Public Prosecutions (Known as Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions from 1983-1995), VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 455, Re The Death of George Hill, 1901, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/9FBC5395-F2E6-11E9-AE98-559AC4181D41

———, VA1464 Penal and Gaols Branch, Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS516 Central Register of Female Prisoners, Harriett Adderley; Prisoner number: 3078, 1904, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/221F4D82-F3A9-11E9-AE98-85DDD0C8DB32?image=18

———, VA2550 Office of Public Prosecutions (Known as Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions from 1983-1995), VPRS30 Criminal Trial Briefs, 424, Trial of Valentine Keating, John Collins and Harriet Adderley, 1904, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/2D88D4CF-F2E7-11E9-AE98-6F7865408125/about

———, VA4202 Court of General Sessions, Melbourne, VPRS17020 Criminal Presentments and Final Orders, Melbourne, 2 Sep 1904 / 10, Valentine Keating and John Hobson, 1904, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/D4474E92-F8B6-11E9-AE98-BB1A13B8F1CE

———, VA1464 Penal and Gaols Branch, Chief Secretary’s Department, VPRS515 Central Register for Male Prisoners, Valentine Keating Prison Number: 30591, 1904, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/1CA8604F-F3A9-11E9-AE98-1D6EA4F7F3F8?image=270

———, VA4202 Court of General Sessions, Melbourne, VPRS17020/P0001 Criminal Presentments and Final Orders, Melbourne, 1 Apr 1925 / 15, Valentine Thomas Keating, 1925, https://prov.vic.gov.au/archive/CCD51196-F8B7-11E9-AE98-7D76AC17A62D

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

Swanson-Holm, R (2022), RE: Harriet Adderley. [email].

Rothville, T (2022), Information Request – Old Melbourne Goal. [email].

PODCASTS

Anthony, D & Reynolds, G, (2018). 303 – The Crutchy Push (live In Adelaide) [podcast] The Dollop. Available at: https://allthingscomedy.com/podcasts/303—the-crutchy-push-live-in-adelaide [Accessed: 29 August 2021].

English, A, (2019). AE 581.2 – Push Gangs in Australia [podcast] Aussie English. Available at: https://aussieenglish.com.au/ae-581-2-push-gangs-in-australia/ [Accessed: 08 November 2021].

Godden, C & Hooper, L, (2019). Episode eight Pt 2 season 2: those bloody kids [podcast] Dead and Burried Podcast. Available at: http://www.deadandburiedpodcast.com/new-blog-2 [Accessed: 29 August 2021].

Sun, H, (2019). How Melbourne’s one-legged gang ruled the streets [podcast] In Black and White with Jen Kelly. Available at: https://omny.fm/shows/in-black-and-white-1/how-melbournes-one-legged-gang-ruled-the-streets [Accessed: 29 August 2021].

Updyke, E & Welsh, E, (2018). Episode 9 Turberculosis: a slow burn [podcast] This Podcast Will Kill You. Available at: https://open.spotify.com/episode/2B2tXZc2UKegSIrx23ugr6?si=-ZllYEFVS3yqTOSMSGlp7w [Accessed: 29 November 2021].

REPORTS

Government, A 2019, People with disability in Australia, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra, ACT, viewed: 19/09/2021, <https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/disability/people-with-disability-in-australia>.

THESIS

Alfred, A 2001, ‘Football: the people’s game’, Dept. of History, Monash University.

Davies, SE 1990, ‘Vagrancy and the Victorians: the social construction of the vagrant in Melbourne, 1880-1907’, PhD thesis, Dept. of History, University of Melbourne.

Dean, W 2001, ‘On the beat : police work in Melbourne, 1853-1923’, PhD thesis, Dept. of History, Monash University.

UNPUBLISHED WORKS

Strand, S 2014, ‘The streets are cold, the gangs are warm: an interrogation of why people join gangs’, Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection.

 Schilver 2022, Jabez Adderley and Harriet Commander: p.1-22 [database online]. Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, Provo, UT, USA. Viewed: Wednesday, April 20, 2022. <https://www.ancestry.com.au/mediaui-viewer/collection/1030/tree/104789005/person/292381128855/media/d8a797e5-e467-4135-9884-2355fedccf69?sort=-created>.

WALKING TOURS

Selford, M (2018), Fitzroy True Crime tour c.1890’s-1920’s, Attended: 9 November 2018, Book at: <https://www.melbournehistoricalcrimetours.com/>.

Goal, OM (2018), Watchhouse experience, Attended: 9 November 2018, Book at: <https://www.oldmelbournegaol.com.au/visit-and-contact/>.

WEBPAGES

The larrikin legacy,  2020, viewed: 16/10/2021, <http://www.convictcreations.com/history/larrikin.htm>.

Age and invalid pensions,  2021, National Museum Australia, viewed: 8 September 2021, <https://www.nma.gov.au/defining-moments/resources/age-and-invalid-pensions>.

The daily life of disabled people in Victorian England – community, school and charity,  2021, History England, viewed: 8 September 2021, <https://historicengland.org.uk/research/inclusive-heritage/disability-history/1832-1914/the-daily-life-of-disabled-people/>.

Australia, GoW 2021, Early 1900s – hospitals for the insane, Department of Communities: Disability Services, viewed: 9 September 2021, <http://www.disability.wa.gov.au/understanding-disability1/understanding-disability/history-of-disability-services/early-1900s–hospitals-for-the-insane/>.

Brown, SL 2015, Murderers, prostitutes, mothers and paupers: Victorian female prison registers online for first time, Australian Broardcasting Coorperation, viewed: 30 March 2020, <https://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-08-21/victorian-archives-prison-records-online/6715032>.

Collections, V 2019, Many roads: stories of the Chinese on the goldfields, viewed: 27 September 2021, <https://victoriancollections.net.au/stories/many-roads-stories-of-the-chinese-on-the-goldfields>.

Commons, ARD 2021, Court of General Sessions, Melbourne, Research Data Australia, viewed: 17 September 2021, <https://researchdata.edu.au/court-general-sessions-melbourne/490597>.

Dentristy, PBCo 2019, Society’s attitude toward people with disabilities, 14 May 2019, n.p, viewed: 2 November 2019, <https://paul-burtner.dental.ufl.edu/oral-health-care-for-persons-with-disabilities/societys-attitude-toward-people-with-disabilities/>.

Dictionary, M 2020, Cripple, Macquarie Dictionary, viewed: Monday, March 30, 2020, <https://www-macquariedictionary-com-au.ezproxy.slv.vic.gov.au/features/word/search/?search_word_type=Dictionary&word=cripple>.

Fraser, C 2022, Cripple Punk: The Disabled Young People Smashing Ableism, VICE, viewed: 22 September 2022, <https://www.vice.com/en/article/akevzj/what-is-cripple-punk>.

Girl, M 2017, Urban dictionary: murderino, Urban Dictionary, viewed: 2 September 2021, <https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=murderino>.

Griffith, RGDB 2006, à Beckett, Sir Thomas (1836–1919), Australian Dictionary of Biography, viewed: 19 September 2021, <https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/a-beckett-sir-thomas-2860>.

List, TS 1997, Frequently Asked Questions, viewed: Tuesday, April 19, 2022, <https://www.theshipslist.com/Forms/faq.shtml>.

Mayne, A 2008, Slums – entry – eMelbourne – the encyclopedia of melbourne online, School of Historical & Philosophical Studies, The University of Melbourne, Emelbourne.net.au, viewed: <https://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM01384b.htm>.

McConville, C 2008, Gangs and pushes – entry – eMelbourne – the encyclopedia of melbourne online, School of Historical & Philosophical Studies, The University of Melbourne, Emelbourne.net.au, viewed: 29 August 2021, <https://www.emelbourne.net.au/biogs/EM00619b.htm>.

McDonald, D 2013, The disability wars: Australia’s unwritten history, Ramp Up, viewed: 8 September 2021, <https://www.abc.net.au/rampup/articles/2013/10/23/3873574.htm>.

Melbourne, C 2017, About Chinatown, viewed: 11 August 2021, <https://chinatownmelbourne.com.au/about-chinatown/>.

NFSTC 2013, A simplified guide to crime scene investigation – blood pattern analysis: principles, National Forensic Science Technology Center, viewed: 8 September 2021, <http://www.forensicsciencesimplified.org/blood/principles.html>.

——— 2013, A simplified guide to crime scene investigation – DNA Evidence: how it’s done, National Forensic Science Technology Center, viewed: 8 September 2021, <http://www.forensicsciencesimplified.org/>.

Project, TP 2021, Victoria courts, viewed: 17 August 2020, <https://prosecutionproject.griffith.edu.au/other-resources/victorian-courts/>.

Read, LA 2006, Chomley, Arthur Wolfe (1837–1914), Australian Dictionary of Biography, viewed: <https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/chomley-arthur-wolfe-3204>.

Starmans, BJ 2018, Pedlars Tinkers and Hawkers, 18 March 2018, The Social Historian, viewed: 16/10/2021, <https://www.thesocialhistorian.com/pedlars-tinkers-and-hawkers/>.

Stastics, ABo 2018, Disability, ageing and carers, Australia: summary of findings, 2018, 24 October 2019, viewed: 2 November 2019, <https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/health/disability/disability-ageing-and-carers-australia-summary-findings/2018>.

What is the Commonwealth of Nations? What countries are part of it? How does it work?,  2022, The Limited Times, viewed: 16 September 2022, < https://newsrnd.com/news/2022-09-14-what-is-the-commonwealth-of-nations–what-countries-are-part-of-it–how-does-it-work-.rkVtKtyZs.html>.

Worth, M 2021, £52 per annum to 2020 per annum, viewed: 09/09/2021, <https://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/australiacompare/relativevalue.php>.

YOUTUBE

College, MT (2021) “The Temperance Movement in Australia, 1830-1930,” Youtube. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y7M2Chk3uV4 (Accessed: Thursday, April 21, 2022).

TED (2014) “I’m not your inspiration, thank you very much | Stella Young” Youtube. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K9Gg164Bsw (Accessed: 22 September 2022). 

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